SPINAL CORD INJURIES
Spinal cord injuries: SCI occurs when the spinal cord is damaged as a result of trauma , disease processes , or congenital defects. It results in loss of function such as mobility or feeling . Types of SCI: Complete spinal cord injuries: There is total absence of sensory and motor function at T1 level or below,resulting in loss of sensation and movement in the legs,bowel,bladder and sexual region .Arms and hands retain their normal function. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: There is partial preservation of sensory and motor function below the neurological level. 1.Central cord syndrome: Hyperextension injuries result in central cord syndrome. The majority of incomplete lesions result in this syndrome.This injury results in more impairment of function in the upper extremity than in lower extremity. 2.Anterior cord syndrome: It is caused by Flexion injuries . Motor function and pain and temperature sensation are lost bilaterally below the injured segment.The prognosis is extremely poor for return of bowel and bladder function. 3.Posterior cord lesion:Its very rare , resulting from compression by tumor or infarction of Posterior spinal artery. Proprioception,stereognosis, two-point discrimination and vibration sense are lost below the lesion. 4.Brown-Sequard syndrome: It is due to penetrating injuries (gunshot or stab wounds), only one half of spinal cord is damaged.There is ipsilateral loss of motor function and position sense and contralateral loss of pain sensation several levels below the lesion. 5.cauda equina syndrome: Damage to cauda equina occurs with injuries at L1 level and below, resulting in a lower motor neuron lesion with flaccid paralysis. 6. Conus medullaris syndrome: Injury of sacral cord and lumbar nerve roots within the neural canal results in motor and sensory loss in lower extremity with areflexic bladder and bowel.